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鲜果采后病害生防菌剂即将面世  

2015-06-03 09:11:11|  分类: 奇星闪耀 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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鲜果采后病害生防菌剂即将面世

         在北京市科委的项目支持下,一种新型鲜果采后病害生物防治菌剂即将面世。该制剂由北京市农林科学院和北京燕化永乐生物科技股份有限公司联合开发。
  众所周知,鲜果采后因病害极易引起果实大量变质腐烂,因腐烂造成的损失十分巨大。据报道,在发达国家鲜水果腐损率为10%-20%,在发展中国家为20%-30%,极端年份甚至高达50%以上,其主要原因是缺乏采后病害防控技术。目前,国内应用于果实采后病害防治的化学药剂主要为二氧化硫和噻苯咪唑;而二氧化硫的广泛使用却会带来环境污染,尤其是在长距离运输和长时间果实贮藏中,其杀菌效果会逐渐丧失,因此,根据北京市无公害绿色果品生产要求,亟待开发和应用新型鲜果采后病害杀菌剂。
  生物杀菌剂相对于化学农药而言有着天然优势,可避免农药残留、环境污染、抗药性等问题,且低毒、环保、持效和与自然界生态兼容性较好。其中,酵母菌源生物杀菌剂有着独特的优势:与一些生防细菌相比较,酵母菌不产生抗生素,对环境的负面影响较小;与一些有丝真菌类生防菌相比,酵母不产生致敏孢子;酵母菌生长要求简单,易于大规模发酵生产;酵母菌为最简单的真核生物,其生物活性提高空间较大。因此,开发鲜果采后病害酵母源杀菌剂成为近年来国际果实病害防治和果品食品安全研究领域中一个新的方向和趋势。
  目前,北京市农林科学院植保环保所与企业合作研究,开发了拥有自主知识产权的“梅奇酵母菌DPP2”“黑粉酵母菌SF6、假丝酵母菌sp-Quan”等酵母源杀菌剂,并在此基础上对菌剂制备工艺等产业化关键技术进行了研究,开发出新型植保产品,填补了国内果品采后病害生防菌剂产品空白。其开发的酵母菌杀菌剂可在果实采摘之前三周进行园间喷施,并于果实采后贮藏和运输之前对果实进行浸泡处理,实现了对果实病害进行防治、对果品腐烂进行防控,从而减少化学药剂的应用量,保障了食品安全。通过产研结合,促进了成果转化,增强了企业的创新能力和竞争力。 

(原载《奇星果业科技》2015年第七期)

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